Search Evaluations

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Formal
Structured efforts that are part of the education system, (including K-12 schools, colleges and universities), and that usually take place in classrooms or schools. (For example, a biodiversity curriculum used in 8th grade science classes.)

Nonformal 
Nonformal education settings are typically less structured than formal settings and tend to give participants more choice in deciding what to do and how to participate.  Workshops, seminars, clubs, service groups, zoos, tours, youth groups, and nature centers are all typical nonformal educational settings.

Informal
Informal learning settings typically have the least structure.  In these settings participants must make decisions about what to learn and how to participate.  This is sometimes referred to as incidental learning.  Mass media, interpretive activities, signage, kiosks, etc. are settings where informal learning could occur.
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Lesson/Unit/Curriculum Material:
Informal learning settings typically have the least structure.  In these settings participants must make decisions about what to learn and how to participate.  This is sometimes referred to as incidental learning.  Mass media, interpretive activities, signage, kiosks, etc. are settings where informal learning could occur.

Issue Investigation/ Service Learning: 
Service learning is an approach to teaching that combines academic learning with community or environmental service.  Issue investigation refers to any process that involves students in the exploration, analysis, and the development of potential solutions regarding an environmental issue. This category also includes action research, inquiry learning, and similar teaching methods.


Field Trip/Guided Tour: 
An educational experience that takes place outside of the formal school setting

Interpretive Exhibits
This includes exhibits, as well as signage common in non-formal and informal educational settings such as zoos, museums, nature centers, etc.

Club/Interest Group 
This includes activities/programs sponsored by various clubs/groups. These programs are typically nonformal or informal in nature and take place after/out of school.  

Camp/Residential Program 
Includes day camps or overnight camps and similar programs of various lengths. 
 
Workshop/Course 
Refers to instructional classes for the purpose of professional/personal development. This category also includes university courses, as well as other types of more extensive professional development. 

Outdoor Adventure/Recreation 
A structured recreational activity or series of activities that take place outdoors (e.g., canoeing, rock climbing, ropes courses, etc.). 

 Out of/After School 
Any activity/program/event that does not take place during normal school hours, but is associated with Pre-K-12 students and likely to be affiliated with a school. 

Mass Media Campaigns 
Campaigns that target segments of the general public and include the use of brochures, flyers, magazines, and/or other media.
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Agriculture/Gardening
Programs focus on agriculture and/or gardening and other related issues, such as composting. 

Animals/Plants/Wildlife 
Programs focus on specific animals/plants/wildlife, as well as the flora/fauna of an ecosystem or region.


Biodiversity
Programs discuss the diversity of species on Earth, the importance of biodiversity, threats to biodiversity (e.g. habitat loss), endangered species, species extinction, and conservation.

Career Choices
Programs provide participants with information about careers in environmental/conservation related fields.

Climate Change 
Programs address the science and impacts of, and socio-political responses to global warming.


Ecology/Ecosystems 
Programs focus on the science of ecology and on how various habitats and ecosystems function.


Energy  
Programs focus on energy, energy conservation, alternative energy, or similar topics.


Earth Sciences 
Programs address geology, weather, the water cycle, and other related topics.


Human Health  
Programs address issues such as asthma, lead, obesity/ physical activity, and other hazards to human health.


Pollution 
Programs address environmental hazards affecting land, air, or water (e.g. acid rain, non-point source pollution, etc.).


Recycling/Waste Reduction
Programs focus on recycling, waste management, waste reduction, etc. 


Sustainability 
Programs discuss issues related to sustainability and sustainable development, such as human population, water use, transportation, etc.
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Lesson/Unit/Curriculum Material
Informal learning settings typically have the least structure.  In these settings participants must make decisions about what to learn and how to participate.  This is sometimes referred to as incidental learning.  Mass media, interpretive activities, signage, kiosks, etc. are settings where informal learning could occur.

Preschool (preK)
Children typically 5 and under, not yet enrolled in elementary school.

Primary (K-5)
Children, typically ages 6 to 11.

Secondary (6-12)
Adolescents, typically ages 12 to 18.

College/Continuing Education
Adults who are in college or participating in a continuing education or professional development course.

Teachers
Formal educators at preK-12 institutions.

Nonformal Educators
Educators working in nonformal settings, such as zoos, museums, nature centers, etc.

Other Professionals
Adult professionals not included in other audience categories, such as conservation professionals, program managers, business professionals, etc.

Adult/Community Groups
A group with a specific mission, which may or may not be directly affiliated with an educational institution (e.g., Lion’s Club, Jaycees, etc.).

Youth Groups
A group composed of young people with a specific mission, which may or may not be directly affiliated an educational institution (e.g., Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, 4-H, FFA, etc.).

Other Groups/Individuals
Segments of the general public not included in the other categories, ranging from individual visitors to families to senior citizens.

Underserved/Minority Groups
Individuals not frequently served by environmental programs and/or members of minority groups.
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Evaluation Plan
Justifies the purpose of the evaluation and describes the evaluation approach and design.  It details what will be done, how it will be done, who will do it, and when it will be completed.

Adapted from: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/BJA/evaluation/glossary/glossary_e.htm

Needs Assessment 
Determines the need for a project or program by considering aspects such as available resources, extent of the problem and need to address it, audience interest and knowledge, etc.  This is also known as a front-end evaluation..

Process/Implementation Evaluation 
Examines the implementation of a program, focusing on the effort invested in the program and its direct outputs.  The information gathered is then used to improve the program.  For example, an implementation evaluation might measure how the program is being delivered, who participated, and whether they were satisfied.  

http://www.gse.harvard.edu/hfrp/pubs/onlinepubs/pcce/ecc.html


Outcome Evaluation
Outcome evaluation shows the program’s direct effects on specifically defined target outcomes, and provides direction for program improvement.  For example, outcome evaluation may show that a program was (or was not) successful in changing participants’ knowledge, attitudes, or behavior.


Impact Evaluation 
Impact evaluation seeks to assess the broader, longer-term changes that occurred as a result of a program. These changes typically occur within the entire community, organization, society, or environment. 

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Internal
Refers to evaluators who are also employees of the organization conducting the program.

Adapted from: Worthen, B.R., Sanders, J.R., & Fitzpatrick, J.L. (1997). Program Evaluation: Alternative approaches and practical guidelines. New York: Longman Publishers, USA.

External 
Refers to evaluators who are not employed by the organization conducting the program, other than to implement the evaluation.

Adapted from: Worthen, B.R., Sanders, J.R., & Fitzpatrick, J.L. (1997). Program Evaluation: Alternative approaches and practical guidelines. New York: Longman Publishers, USA.

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Participants
Evaluation findings describing how many individuals are participating, who these individuals are, and how participation changes over time.  

Activity Implementation 
Evaluation findings describing how a program is implemented and to what extent the program is being delivered as intended.

Satisfaction 
Evaluation findings describing audience/stakeholder satisfaction with the program or specific components of the program.
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Knowledge
Refers to participants gaining knowledge as a result of the program.  Typically this would require participants to recall something from memory, comprehend its meaning, be able to explain it, and be able to apply it.  

Adapted from: UNESCO. (1978). Declaration of the first intergovernmental conference on Environmental Education, Tbilisi, 1977.  

Attitudes/Values 
Refers to participants altering their attitudes/values as a result of the program.  Attitudes/values are typically determined by asking participants to report how they feel and/or what they believe about an issue.  

Skills 
Refers to the verbal, mental, or physical abilities participants gain by engaging in the program. In EE, these are typically the thinking and action skills relevant to identifying, preventing, and resolving environmental issues.
Adapted from: Bennett, C. (2006).  KASA. Retrieved June 1, 2006 from: http://citnews.unl.edu/TOP/english/level3.html  
UNESCO. (1978). Declaration of the first intergovernmental conference on Environmental Education, Tbilisi, 1977.


Behaviors
Refers to behavioral intentions or actual behaviors that are formed or occur as a result of participation in the program.  These intentions or behaviors are ones assumed to ultimately benefit the environment.
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Environmental
Positive environmental changes attributable to the program. These impacts are observable and/or measurable, and can be small-scale or large-scale. This includes both improvements in aspects of environmental quality and prevention of environmental degradation.  


Educational 
Positive changes in education contexts based on the program.  For example, increases in students’ academic achievement, improvements in teachers’ practices, or enhancements to physical learning settings.


Health
Positive changes in human health and health care resulting from the program.  Human health outcomes may include lower rates of disease, disability, injury, and mortality, etc.  Health care outcomes may include environmentally healthier facilities for health care, improved rates of correct diagnosis of environmental health problems, and greater communication of environmental health risks between doctors and patients. 

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Quantitative
Information presented and/or summarized through numbers.  This includes counts, frequencies, ratings, percentages, and other numeric information.  
Adapted from: Jacques, D. (1989). Dimensions of Evaluation.  Retrieved May 06 from: http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsd/2_learntch/evaluation.html


Qualitative 
Information described through words, images, or actions.  Qualitative data can be obtained through interviews, transcripts, observations, photographs, videotapes, written narratives or similar sources. 
Jacques, D. (1989). Dimensions of Evaluation.  Retrieved May 06 from: http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsd/2_learntch/evaluation.html 
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Existing Data/Documents
A review and analysis of existing program records and other information collected by the program.  These items were not originally intended for the purposes of the evaluation, but may be a valuable source of program information.

Adapted from: http://www.gse.harvard.edu/hfrp/content/projects/afterschool/resources/ost_terms.pdf


Focus Groups 
A method of group interviewing designed to yield information through guided interaction among group members.

Adapted from: Worthen, B.R., Sanders, J.R., & Fitzpatrick, J.L. (1997). Program Evaluation: Alternative approaches and practical guidelines. New York: Longman Publishers, USA.

Interviews
A series of orally-delivered questions designed to explore individual participants’ attitudes, knowledge, opinions, etc. 

Adapted from: Patricia Wheeler, Geneva D. Haertel, and Michael Scriven. (1992). Teacher Evaluation Glossary, Kalamazoo, MI: CREATE Project, The Evaluation Center, Western Michigan University 
http://ec.wmich.edu/glossary/glossaryList.htm


Logs/Journals/Student Work
Logs and journals are used to capture participants’ experiences during a program.  Typically, participants are asked to record thoughts or actions on a daily or weekly basis.  The data is often qualitative in nature, but quantitative data can also be collected.  Student work refers to artifacts created by participants during the program, such as art, writing assignments, etc.


Observations/Visitor Tracking 
A data collection strategy in which the behavior of subjects is observed and examined. 


Standardized Tests
Assessment methods designed to be administered, scored, and interpreted in the same way regardless of when and where they are administered. 

Adapted from: Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation. (2003). The Student Evaluation Standards, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. (used with permission of publisher) 
http://ec.wmich.edu/glossary/glossaryList.htm

Questionnaires/Surveys 
A form consisting of a series of questions used to collect information about program participants’ knowledge, feelings, intentions, satisfaction, background, etc.  

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Pretest
An instrument administered before the program or activity has begun. It is compared with the results of a posttest to show the effects of the program/activity.

Adapted from: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/BJA/evaluation/glossary/glossary_i.htm.

Posttest 
An instrument administered after the program or activity has ended (Center for Program Evaluation, 2006).  It is often compared with the results of a pretest or retrospective pretest to show the effects of the program/activity.
Adapted from: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/BJA/evaluation/glossary/glossary_i.htm


Retrospective Pretest
This pretest is given after the program ends, rather than before the program.  Typically participants are asked to think back and answer questions about what their knowledge, attitudes, skills, or behaviors were like before the program.  
Adapted from: http://www.gse.harvard.edu/hfrp/eval/issue30/spotlight.html


Retention/Follow-up Test
An instrument administered not immediately after the program has ended, but sometime later.  Retention/Follow-up tests are used to determine whether the program produced durable changes in participants.

Comparison/Control Groups
The comparison or control group is a group of individuals who do not take part in a program, but who are ideally are similar to individuals who do (treatment group).  Comparison and treatment group results are compared to determine whether the changes in program participants are due to the program or other factors.


Multiple Treatment Groups
When similar groups of individuals experience different programs to determine which program may be most effective.  Or when different groups with different characteristics experience the same program.


Random Assignment
Participants are assigned to treatment or comparison groups such that each individual has an equal chance of being selected for either group; their assignment to either group is determined by chance. 
http://psychology.about.com/od/rindex/g/def_randomassig.htm
www.mh.state.oh.us/oper/research/pubs.ta.research.glossary.html


Interpretive Exhibits
This includes exhibits, as well as signage common in nonformal and informal educational settings such as zoos, museums, nature centers, etc.
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Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive statistics include summary measures such as frequency, mean, mode, median, and others. 

http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.htm

Inferential Statistics 
Inferential statistics are used to make inferences about the whole population, extending beyond the immediate data alone and include correlations, t-tests, Chi-squared tests, ANOVAs, ANCOVAs, regressions, etc.  


Field Trip/Guided Tour: 
An educational experience that takes place outside of the formal school setting


Interpretive Exhibits
This includes exhibits, as well as signage common in nonformal and informal educational settings such as zoos, museums, nature centers, etc.
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Key Incident Analysis
Key incidents or major events are used to draw conclusions.  This may include the use of quotes and examples.


Content Analysis w/ Categorization of Responses 
A method of analysis that summarizes qualitative data by grouping responses into categories.  
Adapted from: Worthen, B.R., Sanders, J.R., & Fitzpatrick, J.L. (1997). Program Evaluation: Alternative approaches and practical guidelines. New York: Longman Publishers, USA.

Content Analysis w/ Descriptive Statistics 
A method of analysis that summaries qualitative data by grouping responses into categories and then uses descriptive statistics (frequencies, means, etc.) to organize, display, and describe these results. 

Adapted from: Worthen, B.R., Sanders, J.R., & Fitzpatrick, J.L. (1997). Program Evaluation: Alternative approaches and practical guidelines. New York: Longman Publishers, USA.


Content Analysis w/ Inferential Statistics
A method of analysis that summaries qualitative data by grouping responses into categories and then uses inferential statistics (correlations, t-tests, etc.) to draw conclusions and inferences from these results.  

Adapted from: Worthen, B.R., Sanders, J.R., & Fitzpatrick, J.L. (1997). Program Evaluation: Alternative approaches and practical guidelines. New York: Longman Publishers, USA.
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Evaluating a Constructivi... Stern, M.J., Powell... 2011 Stern_Profile_0.pdf Stern_no_report.pdf
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IslandWood Evaluation Pro... Kearney, A.R. 2009 Kearney_Profile.pdf Kearney_Islandwood_E..
Wood to Energy: An Outrea... Monroe, M. and A.... 2009 Wood_to_Energy_Monro.. Wood_to_Energy_Final..
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Environmental Education i... Morgan, S.,... 2009 Morgan_Profile.pdf Morgan_no_report.pdf
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Four Rs Action Program: R... Shankar, S. 2007 KftB_Detailed_profil.. KftB_no_full_report...
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Year End Evaluation of Na... Simmons, B. 2007 Simmons_Profile.pdf Simmons_Report.pdf
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Mobilising Rural Communit... Curtis, D. 2006 Curtis_Profile.pdf Curtis_Mobilising_ru..
Evaluation Report Academy... Heimlich, J. 2006 Heimlich_Profile.pdf Heimlich_Evaluation_..
Examining the impacts of... Ryu, H-C and S. D.... 2006 Ryu_and_Brody_Detail.. Ryu_and_Brody_no_ful..
Teachers for Tigers in Bh... Mohan, N. 2005 Tiger_Detailed_Profi.. Tiger_pre_plan_and_w..
Effects of Outdoor Educat... American Institutes... 2005 CA_Outdoor_Detailed_.. CA_Outdoor_no_report..
Science of the Great Outd... Rom, Nicole 2005 Great_Outdoors_Detai.. Great_Outdoors_no_re..
Making a difference in na... Müller, Sigrid 2005 Making_a_Difference_.. Making_a_difference_..
Scientific knowledge and... Brossard, D.,... 2005 The_birdhouse_networ.. The_Birdhouse_Networ..
A formative evaluation of... Ernst, J. 2005 Prairie_Detailed_Pro.. Prairie_Science_Clas..
Saint Louis Zoo Fall 2005... Jordan, J. 2005 SLZ_Detailed_Profile.. SLZ_Full report.pdf
Evaluation of the Environ... Smith-Sebasto, N.J... 2004 NJSOC_Detailed_profi.. NJSOC_no_full_report..
Using a behavior change m... Adelman, L.M.,... 2004 Disney_Adelman_Detai.. Disney_Adelman_no_fu..
An Evaluation of Four Pla... Powers, A. L. 2004 Powers_Detailed_Prof.. Powers_no_full_repor..
Evaluation of the Chesape... Zint, M., Kraemer,... 2002 Zint_CBF_Profile.pdf CBF_no_full_report.p..
Social learning as an app... Krasny, M.E. and S-... 2002 Krasny_Lee_Profile.p.. Krasny_SocialLeaning..
Emergent learning opportu... Rahm, J. 2002 City_Farmers_Detaile.. City_farmers_no_repo..
Wonders in Nature - Wonde... Somers, Cindy 2001 WIN_Detailed_Profile.. WIN_Combined-Win-Win..
Participatory Evaluation... McDuff, M. D.,... 2001 McDuff_Profile.pdf McDuff_no_full_repor..
Perceptions of the concer... Labbe, C. P.,... 2001 Fortner_Magazine_Pro.. Fortner_mag_no_full_..
Colorado Youth Corps Fina... Fleming, M. L. 2001 Fleming_Corps_Profil.. Fleming_Full_Report_..
Evaluating the Effectiven... Dettmann-Easler, D... 1999 Dettmann_Profile.pdf Dettmann_no_report.p..
USGS/NSTA Earth Science M... Andrews, E. and... 1999 Andrews_Profile.pdf Andrews_no_full_repo..
Closing the Achievement G... Lieberman, G. A... 1998 SEER_Detailed_Profil.. SEER_no_full_report...
Volunteer-led Investigati... Hollweg, S. K. 1997 Borgman_Cole_Gutierr.. Are We Making a Diff..
Project WILD Field Test E... Fleming, L. M. 1983 Fleming_WILD_Profile.. Fleming_PWild_Entire..